Peru Demographics 2023

Peru Population Yearly Change Global Share Global Rank
+ 1.42%

Fertility in Peru

A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration. A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline

 TOTAL FERTILIY RATE (TFR) 2.3 (Live Births per Woman, 2020) 

Life Expectancy in Peru


77.4 years

(life expectancy at birth, both sexes combined)

80.2 years

(life expectancy at birth, females)

74.9 years

(life expectancy at birth, males)

Infant Mortality Rate and Deaths of Children under 5 Years Old in Peru

INFANT MORTALITY 10.7 (infant deaths per 1,000 live births)DEATHS UNDER AGE 5 13.7 (per 1,000 live births)

Peru Urban Population

Currently, 79.1 % of the population of Peru is urban (25,721,093 people in 2019)


Population Density

The 2019 population density in Peru is 25 people per Km2 (66 people per mi2), calculated on a total land area of 1,280,000 Km2 (494,211 sq. miles).

Largest Cities in Peru

1 Lima 7,737,002
2 Arequipa 841,130
3 Callao 813,264
4 Trujillo 747,450
5 Chiclayo 577,375
6 Iquitos 437,620
7 Huancayo 376,657
8 Piura 325,466
9 Chimbote 316,966
10 Cusco 312,140
11 Pucallpa 310,750
12 Tacna 280,098
13 Santiago de Surco 251,648
14 Ica 246,844
15 Juliaca 245,675


Population Pyramid

A Population pyramid (also called “Age-Sex Pyramid”) is a graphical representation of the age and sex of a population.


  • Expansive – pyramid with a wide base (larger percentage of people in younger age groups, indicating high birth rates and high fertility rates) and narrow top (high death rate and lower life expectancies). It suggests a growing population.
  • Constrictive – pyramid with a narrow base (lower percentage of younger people, indicating declining birth rates with each succeeding age group getting smaller than the previous one).
  • Stationary – with a somewhat equal proportion of the population in each age group. The population is stable, neither increasing nor decreasing.


Dependency Ratio

There are three types of age dependency ratio: Youth, Elderly, and Total. All three ratios are commonly multiplied by 100.

Youth Dependency Ratio
Definition: population ages 0-15 divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 0-15] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Elderly dependency ratio
Definition: population ages 65-plus divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 65-plus] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Total dependency ratio
Definition: sum of the youth and old-age ratios.
Formula: (([Population ages 0-15] + [Population ages 65-plus]) ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

NOTE: Dependency Ratio does not take into account labor force participation rates by age group. Some portion of the population counted as “working age” may actually be unemployed or not in the labor force whereas some portion of the “dependent” population may be employed and not necessarily economically dependent.