Romania Demographics 2023

Romania Population Yearly Change Global Share Global Rank

Fertility in Romania

A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration. A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline

TOTAL FERTILIY RATE (TFR) 1.6 (Live Births per Woman, 2020) 

Life Expectancy in Romania


76.5 years

(life expectancy at birth, both sexes combined)

79.9 years

(life expectancy at birth, females)

73.1 years

(life expectancy at birth, males)

Infant Mortality Rate and Deaths of Children under 5 Years Old in Romania

 INFANT MORTALITY 5.8 (infant deaths per 1,000 live births)DEATHS UNDER AGE 5 6.9 (per 1,000 live births)

Romania Urban Population

Currently, 54.4 % of the population of Romania is urban (10,537,319 people in 2019)


Population Density

The 2019 population density in Romania is 84 people per Km2 (218 people per mi2), calculated on a total land area of 230,170 Km2 (88,869 sq. miles).

Largest Cities in Romania

1 Bucharest 1,877,155
2 Sector 3 385,439
3 Sector 6 367,760
4 Sector 2 345,370
5 Iasi 318,012
6 Cluj-Napoca 316,748
7 Timisoara 315,053
8 Craiova 304,142
9 Constanta 303,399
10 Galati 294,087
11 Sector 4 287,828
12 Brasov 276,088
13 Sector 5 271,575
14 Ploiesti 228,851
15 Sector 1 225,453
16 Braila 213,569
17 Oradea 206,614


Population Pyramid

A Population pyramid (also called “Age-Sex Pyramid”) is a graphical representation of the age and sex of a population.


  • Expansive – pyramid with a wide base (larger percentage of people in younger age groups, indicating high birth rates and high fertility rates) and narrow top (high death rate and lower life expectancies). It suggests a growing population.
  • Constrictive – pyramid with a narrow base (lower percentage of younger people, indicating declining birth rates with each succeeding age group getting smaller than the previous one).
  • Stationary – with a somewhat equal proportion of the population in each age group. The population is stable, neither increasing nor decreasing.



Dependency Ratio

There are three types of age dependency ratio: Youth, Elderly, and Total. All three ratios are commonly multiplied by 100.

Youth Dependency Ratio
Definition: population ages 0-15 divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 0-15] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Elderly dependency ratio
Definition: population ages 65-plus divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 65-plus] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Total dependency ratio
Definition: sum of the youth and old-age ratios.
Formula: (([Population ages 0-15] + [Population ages 65-plus]) ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

NOTE: Dependency Ratio does not take into account labor force participation rates by age group. Some portion of the population counted as “working age” may actually be unemployed or not in the labor force whereas some portion of the “dependent” population may be employed and not necessarily economically dependent.