Sudan Demographics 2023

Sudan Population Yearly Change Global Share Global Rank
+ 2.42%

Fertility in Sudan

A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration. A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline

TOTAL FERTILIY RATE (TFR) 4.4 (Live Births per Woman, 2020) 

Life Expectancy in Sudan


66.1 years

(life expectancy at birth, both sexes combined)

68.0 years

(life expectancy at birth, females)

64.2 years

(life expectancy at birth, males)

Infant Mortality Rate and Deaths of Children under 5 Years Old in Sudan

INFANT MORTALITY 38.0 (infant deaths per 1,000 live births)DEATHS UNDER AGE 5 56.9 (per 1,000 live births)

Sudan Urban Population

Currently, 34.7 % of the population of Sudan is urban (14,852,586 people in 2019)


Population Density

The 2019 population density in Sudan is 24 people per Km2 (63 people per mi2), calculated on a total land area of 1,765,048 Km2 (681,489 sq. miles).

Largest Cities in Sudan

1 Khartoum 1,974,647
2 Omdurman 1,200,000
3 Nyala 565,734
4 Port Sudan 489,725
5 Kassala 401,477
6 El Obeid 393,311
7 Al Qadarif 363,945
8 Kosti 345,068
9 Wad Medani 332,714
10 El Daein 264,734
11 El Fasher 252,609
12 Singa 250,000


Population Pyramid

A Population pyramid (also called “Age-Sex Pyramid”) is a graphical representation of the age and sex of a population.


  • Expansive – pyramid with a wide base (larger percentage of people in younger age groups, indicating high birth rates and high fertility rates) and narrow top (high death rate and lower life expectancies). It suggests a growing population.
  • Constrictive – pyramid with a narrow base (lower percentage of younger people, indicating declining birth rates with each succeeding age group getting smaller than the previous one).
  • Stationary – with a somewhat equal proportion of the population in each age group. The population is stable, neither increasing nor decreasing.


Dependency Ratio

There are three types of age dependency ratio: Youth, Elderly, and Total. All three ratios are commonly multiplied by 100.

Youth Dependency Ratio
Definition: population ages 0-15 divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 0-15] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Elderly dependency ratio
Definition: population ages 65-plus divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 65-plus] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Total dependency ratio
Definition: sum of the youth and old-age ratios.
Formula: (([Population ages 0-15] + [Population ages 65-plus]) ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

NOTE: Dependency Ratio does not take into account labor force participation rates by age group. Some portion of the population counted as “working age” may actually be unemployed or not in the labor force whereas some portion of the “dependent” population may be employed and not necessarily economically dependent.