Vietnam Demographics 2023

Vietnam Population Yearly Change Global Share Global Rank
+ 0.91%

Fertility in Vietnam

A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration. A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline

TOTAL FERTILIY RATE (TFR) 2.1 (Live Births per Woman, 2020) 

Life Expectancy in Vietnam


75.8 years

(life expectancy at birth, both sexes combined)

79.9 years

(life expectancy at birth, females)

71.7 years

(life expectancy at birth, males)

Infant Mortality Rate and Deaths of Children under 5 Years Old in Vietnam

 INFANT MORTALITY 15.4 (infant deaths per 1,000 live births)DEATHS UNDER AGE 5 19.3 (per 1,000 live births)

Vietnam Urban Population

Currently, 37.0 % of the population of Vietnam is urban (35,686,730 people in 2019)


Population Density

The 2019 population density in Vietnam is 311 people per Km2 (806 people per mi2), calculated on a total land area of 310,070 Km2 (119,719 sq. miles).

Largest Cities in Vietnam

1 Ho Chi Minh City 3,467,331
2 Hanoi 1,431,270
3 Da Nang 752,493
4 Haiphong 602,695
5 Bien Hoa 407,208
6 Hue 287,217
7 Nha Trang 283,441
8 Can Tho 259,598
9 Rach Gia 228,356
10 Qui Nhon 210,338
11 Vung Tau 209,683


Population Pyramid

A Population pyramid (also called “Age-Sex Pyramid”) is a graphical representation of the age and sex of a population.


  • Expansive – pyramid with a wide base (larger percentage of people in younger age groups, indicating high birth rates and high fertility rates) and narrow top (high death rate and lower life expectancies). It suggests a growing population.
  • Constrictive – pyramid with a narrow base (lower percentage of younger people, indicating declining birth rates with each succeeding age group getting smaller than the previous one).
  • Stationary – with a somewhat equal proportion of the population in each age group. The population is stable, neither increasing nor decreasing.



Dependency Ratio

There are three types of age dependency ratio: Youth, Elderly, and Total. All three ratios are commonly multiplied by 100.

Youth Dependency Ratio
Definition: population ages 0-15 divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 0-15] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Elderly dependency ratio
Definition: population ages 65-plus divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 65-plus] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Total dependency ratio
Definition: sum of the youth and old-age ratios.
Formula: (([Population ages 0-15] + [Population ages 65-plus]) ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

NOTE: Dependency Ratio does not take into account labor force participation rates by age group. Some portion of the population counted as “working age” may actually be unemployed or not in the labor force whereas some portion of the “dependent” population may be employed and not necessarily economically dependent.