Saudi Arabia Demographics 2023

Saudi Arabia Population Yearly Change Global Share Global Rank

Fertility in Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabia Demographics

A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration. A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline

(Live Births per Woman, 2020)

Life Expectancy in Saudi Arabia

75.7 years
(life expectancy at birth, both sexes combined)
77.4 years
(life expectancy at birth, females)
74.5 years
(life expectancy at birth, males)

Infant Mortality Rate and Deaths of Children under 5 Years Old in Saudi Arabia

(infant deaths per 1,000 live births)
(per 1,000 live births)

Saudi Arabia Urban Population: Saudi Arabia Demographics

Currently, 83.8 % of the population of Saudi Arabia is urban (28,700,362 people in 2019)

Population Density: Saudi Arabia Demographics

The 2019 population density in Saudi Arabia is 16 people per Km2 (41 people per mi2), calculated on a total land area of 2,149,690 Km2 (830,000 sq. miles).

Largest Cities in Saudi Arabia

1 Riyadh 4,205,961
2 Jeddah 2,867,446
3 Mecca 1,323,624
4 Medina 1,300,000
5 Sultanah 946,697
6 Dammam 768,602
7 Ta’if 530,848
8 Tabuk 455,450
9 Al Kharj 425,300
10 Buraydah 391,336
11 Khamis Mushait 387,553
12 Al Hufuf 293,179
13 Al Mubarraz 290,802
14 Hafar Al-Batin 271,642
15 Ha’il 267,005
16 Najran 258,573
17 Al Jubayl 237,274
18 Abha 210,886
19 Yanbu 200,161

Definitions: Saudi Arabia Demographics

Population Pyramid

A Population pyramid (also called “Age-Sex Pyramid”) is a graphical representation of the age and sex of a population.


  • Expansive – pyramid with a wide base (larger percentage of people in younger age groups, indicating high birth rates and high fertility rates) and narrow top (high death rate and lower life expectancies). It suggests a growing population.
  • Constrictive – pyramid with a narrow base (lower percentage of younger people, indicating declining birth rates with each succeeding age group getting smaller than the previous one).
  • Stationary – with a somewhat equal proportion of the population in each age group. The population is stable, neither increasing nor decreasing.

Stages: Saudi Arabia Demographics

Saudi Arabia Demographics
Saudi Arabia Demographics

Dependency Ratio

There are three types of age dependency ratio: Youth, Elderly, and Total. All three ratios are commonly multiplied by 100.

Youth Dependency Ratio
Definition: population ages 0-15 divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 0-15] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Elderly dependency ratio
Definition: population ages 65-plus divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 65-plus] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Total dependency ratio
Definition: sum of the youth and old-age ratios.
Formula: (([Population ages 0-15] + [Population ages 65-plus]) ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

NOTE: Dependency Ratio does not take into account labor force participation rates by age group. Some portion of the population counted as “working age” may actually be unemployed or not in the labor force whereas some portion of the “dependent” population may be employed and not necessarily economically dependent.