Cuba Demographics 2023

Cuba Demographics 2023

Cuba Population Yearly Change Global Share Global Rank

Fertility in Cuba

A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration. A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline

TOTAL FERTILIY RATE (TFR) 1.6 (Live Births per Woman, 2020) 

Life Expectancy in Cuba

79.2 years
(life expectancy at birth, both sexes combined)
81.1 years
(life expectancy at birth, females)
77.3 years
(life expectancy at birth, males)

Infant Mortality Rate and Deaths of Children under 5 Years Old in Cuba

(infant deaths per 1,000 live births)
(per 1,000 live births)

Cuba Urban Population

Currently, 78.2 % of the population of Cuba is urban (8,861,423 people in 2019)


Population Density

The 2019 population density in Cuba is 106 people per Km2 (276 people per mi2), calculated on a total land area of 106,440 Km2 (41,097 sq. miles).

Largest Cities in Cuba

1 Havana 2,163,824
2 Santiago de Cuba 555,865
3 Camaguey 347,562
4 Holguin 319,102
5 Guantanamo 272,801
6 Santa Clara 250,512
7 Diez de Octubre 227,293
8 Arroyo Naranjo 210,053
9 Las Tunas 203,684


Population Pyramid

A Population pyramid (also called “Age-Sex Pyramid”) is a graphical representation of the age and sex of a population.


  • Expansive – pyramid with a wide base (larger percentage of people in younger age groups, indicating high birth rates and high fertility rates) and narrow top (high death rate and lower life expectancies). It suggests a growing population. 


  • Constrictive – pyramid with a narrow base (lower percentage of younger people, indicating declining birth rates with each succeeding age group getting smaller than the previous one). 


  • Stationary – with a somewhat equal proportion of the population in each age group. The population is stable, neither increasing nor decreasing.



Dependency Ratio

There are three types of age dependency ratio: Youth, Elderly, and Total. All three ratios are commonly multiplied by 100.

Youth Dependency Ratio
Definition: population ages 0-15 divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 0-15] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Elderly dependency ratio
Definition: population ages 65-plus divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 65-plus] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Total dependency ratio
Definition: sum of the youth and old-age ratios.
Formula: (([Population ages 0-15] + [Population ages 65-plus]) ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

NOTE: Dependency Ratio does not take into account labor force participation rates by age group. Some portion of the population counted as “working age” may actually be unemployed or not in the labor force whereas some portion of the “dependent” population may be employed and not necessarily economically dependent.

See also

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